*Vagif S. Novruzov, Fadai F. Alakbarov

DOI: 10.30546/abc.2022.1.1.28

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Ganja State University, Ganja, Azerbaijan



Abstract: The present paper is devoted to species composition, taxonomic status, distribution, and monitoring opportunities of lichens and mosses in the Bozdag mountain range. In general, 29 lichen species belonging to 22 genera, 17 families and 30 moss species belonging to 21 genera, 12 families were detected in Bozdag. Lecania triseptata, Lecanora gllabrat species of lichens and Leskea polycarpa, Leucodon immerses species of mosses have been recommended for biomonitoring.

Lichens and mosses of different origins of the Bozdag mountain range entered the study area at different times. It is known that the Poltava-type tropical flora dominated during the Oligocene. This tropical flora had a Poltavian tropical character of the Caucasian flora in the early Neogene. In the early Oligocene and Neogene, Lecidea, Lecanora, Caloplaca were widespread in the Caucasus.

Shrubby epiphyte and epigey lichens are tolerant to atmospheric pollutants. Indicator species  for use in the biomonitoring system have been identified. Lichen species such as Lecania triseptata, Lecanora gllabrat and moss species, such as Leskea polycarpa, Leucodon immerses are recommended for use in biomonitoring.


Keywords: Bosdag, Korchay, moss, lichen, synusia, lichen, moss, species, tolerant, biomonitoring



Introduction. Bozdag mountain range is located at 45050 north latitude, 46045 north longitude. The absolute height is 520 m, the length is 150 km, the formation period is Neogene and Anthropogenic. The rocks are clay, sand, and sandstones. The Bozdag massif is a mid-mountain and foothill slope, semi-desert steppe, small hills, the Korchay valley, mountain ranges stretching from west to east, and Tugai forests along the Kura River. The Bozdag massif is a large area of low and medium mountain ranges extending from west to east. The area is surrounded by the Mingachevir Reservoir in the north and the Korchay River Valley in the south. The geographical relief of the area is semi-desert, dry steppe, middle and low mountain ranges. Vegetation is poorly developed. Wormwood, saltwort, various grasses, juniper, wild pistachio, pomegranate, paliurus, etc. are grown in arid forests. The landscape is a semi-desert, dry steppe, arid forest, and shrubs.

A little sparse forest massif of tamarix, willow, elm, paliurus occurs in Janavar valley and Soy Khanlı zones of Korchay State Nature Reserve. A sparse forest massif of juniper and mastic is spread in the eastern zone of the mountain range called Kerpijli.

Materials and methods. The research objects were lichens and mosses of the Bozdag mountain range. The research was carried out by the route and stationary methods. At the same time, floristic, floristic-systematic, areological, botanical-geographical, phytocenological, statistical methods were taken into account. The nomenclature of taxa was given according to modern catalogs. The Index of Atmospheric Purity was calculated according to H.H.Trass [Alverdiyeva S.М. et all., 2014; Andreyeva E.N., 2009; Novruzov V.S., 2000; Ignatov M. S. et al., 2006; Trass, Х.Х., 1985]

Results and discussion. In Bozdag mountain range, 29 lichen species belonging to 22 genera, 17 families and 30 moss species belonging to 21 genera, 12 families were detected. The lichens and mosses of the Bozdag mountain range (150 km), which does not have a large area, are of a regional nature. The diversity of lichens and mosses is attributed to the geographical location of the area, and the variety of ecological conditions [Alverdiyeva S.М. et all., 2014; Andreyeva E.N., 2000].

Mosses such as Pottia bryoides (Dicks.) Mitt, Leskea polycarpa Hedw., Brachythecium rutabulum (Hedw.) B.S.G., Amblystegium serpens (Hedw.) B.S.G. occur on soil, Grimmia pulvinata (Hedw.) Sm., Trichostomopsis crispulum Bruch., Camptothecium lutescens (Hedw.) B.S.G. on stones and Barbula vinealis Brid., Leucodon immersus Lindb., Neskera besseri (Lobar.) Jur. on trunks of mastic and pistacia. Species of Hylocomium, Pleurozium genera form synusia with lichens in the southern foothills of the Bozdag mountain range [Andreyeva E.N., 2009; Ignatov M. S. et al., 2006].

Mosses forming synusia with lichens are Dicranum polysetum Sw, Orthodicranum montanum (Hedw.) Loeske, mosses found in large numbers are Polytrichum hyperboreum R.Br., Polytrichum strictum Brid., rarely occurred moss isBrachythecium albijans (Hedw.). Polytrichum commune Hedw., Pohlia nutans (Hedw.) Lindb. species are dominant in wet places. Barbula unguiculata Hedw., Barbula rigidula (Hedw.) Mitt., Schistidium gracile (Schleich.) Limpr are widespread on rocks, sediments, and among sod layers of poorly developed cereals.

The species composition and distribution of moss synusiae in the Bozdag mountain range depend on the degree of illumination, water and mineral supply of their habitat. The occurrence of Pottiaceae, Dicranaceae families in the steppe, desert, and semi-desert phytocenoses, in the lower zones is due to climate aridity. Tortula ruralis, a member of the Pottiaceae family, is a species of poikiloxerophytes that signals the onset of dehydration in forests, steppes, and agroecosystems [Novruzov V.S., 2000; Andreyeva E.N., 2009].

Rizocarpon expallens Th.F., Acarospora bicolor Norm, L.coniferata (Duby ex Fr.Grognot., Parmelia discordans Nyl., Lecidea lapicida Ach. species oflichens predominate on silicate rocks, Toninia candida (Web.) Th.Fr.Glypholecia scabra (Gers.) Mull., Rhizocarpon petraeum (Wulfen) Mass., Rhizoplaca melanopthalma (DC) Ley., Aspisilia calcarea (L.) Mud., Lecanora disperesa (Pers.) Sommerf., Pertusaria subdactylina Nyl. on limestones, Peltigera apthosa (L.) Villd. on soil, Lecanora gllabrata (Ach.) Malme., L.crenulata Hook. on paliurus shrub bark, Lecania triseptata (Vain) Zahlbr. on the trunk of pistachio, Pertsaria constricta Erichs. on juniper, Ochrolechia arborea (Krey)Almq., Candelariella reflexa (Nyl)Lettau on pomegranate bark. Xanthoria parietina (L,) Th.Fr., Physconia grisea (Lam.) Poelt., Anaptychia ciliaris (L.) Koerb., Arthonia punctiformis Ach. are tolerant species of Bozdag mountain range.


Table 1. Systematic composition of lichens of the Bozdag mountain range


Family Genus Species
Arthoniaceea Arthonia 1
Opegraphaceae Opegrapha 1
Verrucariaceae Verrucaria 1
Peltigeraceae Peltigera 1
Lecideaceae Lecidea 2
Ramalinaceae Toninia 1
Rhizocarpaceae, Rhizocarpon 2
Lecanoraceae Lecanora




Megasporaceae Aspicilia 2
Parmeliaceae Parmelia 2
Cladoniaceae Cladonia 1
Acarosporaceae Acarospora


Pertusariaceae Pertusaria 2
Candelariaceae Candelariella 1
Teloschistaceae Teloschistes






Physciaceae Physcia




Ochrolechiaceae Ochrolechia 1
17 22 29

Currently, species related to the ancient 3rd period, the end of the Cretaceous period, and the last 4th period are found in the composition of lichens and mosses of the Bozdag mountain range. The centers of formation of the found species mainly cover different plant climatic zones of the Holarctic, the Mediterranean sea, and arid regions [Andreyeva E.N., 2009].


Table 2. Systematic composition of mosses of the Bozdag mountain range


Family Genus Species
Pottiaceae Pottia 2
Barbula 2
Trichostomopsis 1
Tortula 3
Grimmiaceae Grimmia




Leucodontaceae Leucodon 2
Neckeraceae Neskera 2
Leskeaceae Leskeella 1
Leskea 1
Amblystegiaceae Amblystegium 1
Hygroamblystegium 1
Leptodictym 1
Brachytheciaceae Brachythecia 1
Camptothecium. 1
Hypnaceae Hypnum 1
Dicranaceae Dicranum




Hylocomiaceae Hylocomium 1
Polytrichaceae Polytrichum 3
Mniaceae. Pohlia 1
12 21 30


Bioindication is one of the most important methods for assessing the state of the environment. Unlike other methods, bioindicators provide a consistent assessment of adverse environmental factors, including chemical pollution. Besides, it allows the assessment of the total impact of a set of unfavorable factors [6 Ivanov А.I., 2007].

Based on the biodiversity indices, the level of occurrence of lichen and moss species was determined in test objects of biopolygons and agroecosystems. According to the degree of tolerance, the species are divided into 3 groups: cosmopolitan species, species that are selective against certain pollutants, and sensitive species. Lichens Lecanora gllabrat, L.crenulata, Lecania triseptata, Xanthoria parietina Physconia grisea, and mosses Pottia bryoides, Amblystegium serpensare toxitolerant, while lichens Ramalina farinacea, R.fraxinea, Usnea hirta, and mosses Leucodon immersus, Neskera besseri, Polytrichum commune are sensitive to atmospheric pollutants.

Mosses and lichens play an important role in the initial successions on the bare rocks of the Bozdag mountain range. The chemical composition of the rocks, the inclination of slopes, the temperature regime create conditions for the spread of mosses and lichens in the Bozdag mountain range [Alverdiyeva S.М. et all., 2014; Novruzov V.S., 2000;].

Shrubby epiphyte and epigey lichens are tolerant to atmospheric pollutants. Indicator species for use in the biomonitoring system have been identified. Lichen species such as Lecania triseptata, Lecanora gllabrat and moss species, such as Leskea polycarpa, Leucodon immerses are recommended for use in biomonitoring.

Based on test species selected as biopolygons, the direction, radius, and extent of anthropogenic anomalies in Mingachevir and Samukh districts in relation to the standard area were revealed.




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