*Nazim A. Mamedov, **Sayyara C. Ibadullayeva

DOI: 10.30546/abc.2022.1.1.12

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*University of Massachusetts, Amherst, USA
**Institute of Botany
of ANAS, Baku, Azerbaijan



Abstract. The purpose of this paper is to study the correlation between the colors of medicinal plants’ flowers and their pharmacological effects on the human body. It has been known from traditional herbal medicines that certain medicinal plants with the same color of flowers have similar effects on the body. By comparing the same color of flowers of medicinal herbs, we have found that there is a shared effect amongst medicinal plants with the same color flowers. Our findings conclude that purple flowering herbs are mainly adaptogenic and also support the immune system, blue flowering herbs have anti-inflammatory properties, red flowering herbs will affect the blood, yellow flowering herbs help with digestion, white flowering herbs are mostly sedative or affect the nervous system, and herbs with no flowers help provide nutrients to the body. In the future, more investigation is needed to determine specific constituents in plants that are responsible for their pharmacological actions. The study of the correlation between colors of flowers and their healing abilities will help us select the correct medicinal plants for these future clinical studies.


Keywords: medicinal plants, color therapy, doctrine of signatures, adaptogens, sedatives, flowers



Introduction. Medicinal plants have been used for centuries to help aid the human body. Ancient Chinese and Indian medicinal systems focus on using herbs to treat diseases and to support the body’s internal balance [Patwardhan et al., 2005]. The basis of the healing that occurs in ancient medicine derives from the idea of balance. In Chinese medicine this balance is called yin and yang. Yin is considering cooling and dampening, while yang is warming and drying. By balancing these elements, the body will remain in a healthy, diseasefree state. Ayurvedic (Indian) medicine also focuses on balancing the elements of the body. In this tradition, the elements are referred to as: pitta, kapha, and vata. Pitta stands for heat and digestion, vata is wind, or movement, such as muscles and nerve impulses, and kapha is growth of tissue. These elements of balance are used to describe the energetics, the properties of something in terms of energy, of the herb. The energetics of a ginger root, for example, is warming because it stimulates digestion.

Characterizing an herb as hot or cold is one classification system to help the observer identify what kind of healing purpose the herb will have. The purpose of this paper is to provide a new schema to work with when identifying medicinal plants. The schema that we are proposing is the color of flowers. This framework will be based off of the doctrine of signatures, which states that the physical form of a plant will give a clue as to its healing purpose [Bennett, 2008]. By looking at a list of herbs and their flower colors, we are going to see if there is a correlation between flower color and effects on the body.

Studies have shown that color can have a direct effect on the psyche [Birren 1972] and physiologically [Vodvarka 2008]. Because color is such an obvious physical characteristic when looking at herbs, we believe it is an important concept for further research. Ancient systems have long regarded color as being beneficial to the mind/body. Egyptians used color rooms for healing by splitting the sun’s rays into components. By using individual colors, they were able to see the effects of colors on persons. Using color as a way of healing has evolved into the new century and is now described as chromotherapy [Azeemie & Raza, 2005]. Another ancient practice that incorporates color in healing modalities is Ayurveda. The chakras are wheel like force centers that run down the body and correlate to specific functions and color. The first chakra starts at the base of the body and is red. The chakras then ascend up the color spectrum with orange near the sexual organs, yellow near the stomach, green near the heart, blue in the throat, indigo near the pineal gland, and purple on the crown of the head [Frawley, 1989].

In order to determine correct color of flowers we use our personal experience with plants and books for plant identification [Newcomb, 1977; Randushka et al., 1990].

Doctrine of Signatures / Hypothesis. The Doctrine of Signatures is a philosophy shared by herbalists. This theory promotes the idea that herbs resemble certain parts of the body, and therefore are effective at treating those areas of the body. An example of this is the Panax Ginseng Root, which looks like the human body, and is also a very beneficial herb for the whole human body. Panax Ginsengis an adaptogen. The term adaptogen was originally coined by pharmacologist N.V Lazarev [Capasso et al., 2003; Mamedov, 2005] Adaptogenic plants increase the ability of the organism to adapt to environmental factors and resist the damage from stress-factors. Stimulants, on the contrary, only give a temporary increase of work capacity. Adaptogenic plants are thus performance enhancers. They work longer and do not drop off as sharply as stimulants do, but rather “taper off”. We hypothesize that purple flowering plants will be adaptogenic. Purple is also the color of the crown chakra, which governs the nervous system. Another example of the doctrine of signatures is Red Clover that will be discussed later in this article. Red Clover has red flowers and it helps clean the blood, which is also red. We hypothesize that red is therefore stimulating and helps in blood circulation. Yellow is associated with the digestive system chakra. Bile is yellow and a lot of yellow flowering herbs help in bile production. We hypothesize that yellow flowering herbs help the digestive system. The doctrine of signatures serves as a theory to build correlation between physical characteristics of plants and their effects on the body. Therefore, we believe it is important to mention the doctrine of signatures in this paper.

Plant Constituents with Color Results. We hypothesize that purple flowering herbs are correlated with being adaptogens and helping the immune system. A study by Amagase & Nance [2008] showed the benefits of goji berries (a purple flowering herb) in a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study. The results show that the berries effects had significant differences between day 1 and day 15 in quality of sleep, ease of awakening, energy levels, athletic performance, ability to focus, calmness, and overall feelings of health, contentment, and happiness. In the chakra system, the color purple was used to signify the crown, or head chakra. This chakra governed the nervous system and any dis-ease related to it. Vitex agnus-castus L. is a purple flowering herb that helps regulate female hormones through the pituitary gland. Astragalus membranaceus L. and Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moenchn are both beneficial to the immune system [Block and Mead, 2003]. Astragalus is known as Huang Qi in Chinese medicine and is very beneficial to the immune system. Astragalus is highly regarded as an extremely beneficial herb due to its antioxidant, anti inflammatory, antibacterial, and immune stimulating properties. Holy Basil is an equivalent to Astragalus in Indian medicine. It is a sacred herb that has been called “The Elixer of Life.” It was used by Hindus as a religious plant to aid in meditation and spirituality. Purple is a color that through the Indian chakra system, correlates to spiritual power. One of the ways that Holy Basil (Ocimum tenuiflorum L.) helps us deal with stress in our lives is it has a connection to cortisol levels. Cortisol is what we release under stress. So by regulating the cortisol levels, Holy Basil can help our bodies not become overly stressed. Holy Basil has a hot energetic level and it stimulates blood circulation, increasing blood flow to the brain. It nourishes our system because it is high in vitamins and minerals. Holy Basil relaxes the muscles and allows circulation to take place. High levels of cortisol may lead to insomnia. Sleep is imperative for a healthy, stress- free body. So, by consuming Holy Basil, you can allow your body to get a good night’s rest so that the body can do its own job of keeping the stress levels at a balance. Holy Basil helps regulate the body’s natural bipolar adaptonogenic hemeostatic balance. Holy Basil is so nourishing to the body that it can even work as anti-aging. Aging occurs when our cells stop working as they should and start dying faster than the rate that they can repair themselves. Therefore, if we keep our cells nourished and healthy, they will continue to regenerate, slowing down the process of aging. Holy Basil does this directly by assisting the liver, which is in charge of recycling toxins. The less toxins that are in the body, the less damage there are to cells. Common Sage (Salvia officinalis L.), Holy Basil, Astragalus, Burdock (Arcticum lappa L.), Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), and Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.) are all antibacterial and purple flowering herbs. Astragalus, Holy Basil, Burdock, Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.), and Goji Berries are all purple flowering herbs that are adaptogens. Sage, Garlic, Holy Basil, Astragalus, Burdock, Milk Thistle, Thyme are all antioxidant herbs. Sage has hormonal properties and also helps those suffering from nervousness, overexertion, and insomnia. Lavender helps nervous system problems and insomnia. Chaste berry normalizes pituitary function. Milk thistle is a powerful live detoxifier and it is also antioxidant. Thyme prevents memory loss and inefficiency and also helps mental stability. Purple flowers seem to help the body resist disease from illness and stress by acting as adaptogens.

Ancient knowledge states that blue has a calming effect, brings down blood pressure, and helps in mouth/throat problems. We hypothesize that blue will have anti-inflammatory effects. A lot of blue flowers help reduce inflammation. Comfrey, Woodland Sage (Salvia nemorosa L.), Meadow Sage (Salvia officinalisL.), Lilac sage (Syringa L.) Common Harebell (Campanula rotundifolia L.), Throatwort (Campanula trachelium L.), Cornflower, Lungwort (Pulmonaria officinalis L.), and Viola mandshurica all are anti-inflammatory. Rosemary reduces stress and is used for tension headaches and relieves lung congestion. Comfrey also helps with the lungs. Himalayan Blue Poppy helps with high blood pressure, so its energetic property would be a slowing, or calming effect on the body. Himalayan Blue Poppy helps in pain, and so does Woodland Sage and Bellflower. Skullcap is antispasmodic, a nervine tonic, and relaxes nerve and muscle tension [Zhang, Lian, and Stringer, 2009]. Siberian Iris and Himalayan Blue Poppy help the lungs because they are expectorants. Chicory is mucilaginous and helps in liver problems.

Yellow helps in digestion, stimulating the stomach, gallbladder, and pancreas, and gives you the power to digest nutrients. We hypothesize that yellow will help ion digestion. While purple helps relax so that the body can digest, yellow helps stimulate (increasing gastric juice release) so that the body can digest. In the Doctrine of Signatures, bile is yellow and is very important to help digestion. St. John’s Wort (Hypericum perforatum L.), Witch Hazel (Hamamelis virginiana L.), Calendula (C.officinalis), Damiana (Turnera diffusa Willd. ex Schult), Dandelion, (Taraxacum officinale (L.) Weber ex F.H.Wigg.) Mullein, Calendula, Golden Marguerite, Woundwort, Yellow Marsh Marigold, and Elecampane are all yellow flowering medicinal herbs that are bitter. Bitter taste stimulates the digestive system [Ibdullyeva et all., 2017]. This is done through the enteric nervous system. The bitter principle is known to aid in digestion by either bringing more blood to the stomach or stimulating the liver to create bile. Elecampane’s bitter principle stimulates biliary secretion, which is important for the digestion of fats. Elecampane also helps in the digestive process because it contains insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas. The role of insulin is to regulate our body’s blood sugar content. Calendula helps the digestive system through its bitter principles and by healing any gastric and duodenal ulcers. It also helps in reducing inflammation in the digestive tract through its anti-inflammatory, anti bacterial, and wound healing abilities Akihisa [1996] and Chandran [2008]. Fennel is carminative and thus expels gas from the digestive tract. Yellow flowering medicinal herbs help the body by aiding in digestion, and also through their energetic properties. St. John’s Wort is a bright yellow flower that helps in depression Lecruibier et. Al [2002]. Yellow is the color of the sun and life. Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) is a type of depression that occurs from lack of sunlight. St. John’s Wort has bright yellow flowers like the sun, and it also aids in depression, which often occurs from lack of sunlight. This is an example of the Doctrine of Signatures. St. John’s Wort has been studied over various experiments and is slowly becoming an acceptable alternative to anti-depressants, which often leave people feeling more depressed than they did before. St. John’s Wort is a healthy alternative to treating depression because it stimulates digestion, which might be a problem with people that are depressed and have a low appetite, it increases capillary blood flow, and it increases theta waves in the brain which may improve perception and clarify the thinking process. St. John’s Wort is known to bring light to people to that are prone to fear and anxiety attacks. It does this by detoxifying the liver. All of these effects together allow St. John’s Wort to be beneficial to the body and aiding it in general, but especially for people who are depressed. St. John’s Worts’ flowers resemble the sun and the light energy that it gives us. California Poppy is another yellow flowering herb that helps depression by helping relax the nervous system. Dandelion and Burdock are one of the most common herbs used in liver detoxifying and they both are yellow flowering medicinal herbs. Cornelian cherry helps in stomach aches, cramps, and diarrhea. Bladder Senna is diuretic, purgative and laxative.

A lot of red flowering herbs are stimulating. Cloves, Ginger, Valeriana Collina, and Papaver Sominferum are all stimulating to the body. We hypothesize that red affects blood. Red is the color of blood and a lot of red flowering herbs also help the blood. Valeriana sambucifolia reduces blood pressure, Rhododendron arboretum is anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic, French Rose is stimulating and lowers elevated levels of cholesterol in the bloodstream, Althea rosea is anti-inflammatory and improves blood circulation, and the dwarf almost is stimulating and improves digestion. Ginseng balances blood pressure and normalizes blood protein levels. Red Clover, Cloves, Gotu Kola and Ginger all are stimulating and help move the blood. It is important to move the blood so that the body can get its oxygen and nutrients, and it is also important to have clean blood so that the blood is not delivering toxins to the body. Red Clover is a wonderful herb for cleaning the blood. A lot of disease occurs and skin conditions result from toxins in the blood. The skin is an organ used to protect toxins from getting in, and for releasing toxins. Our skin is a protective layer, and when our blood is full of toxins, it shows in skin conditions such as acne or eczema. So if there is a skin condition, it is important to look at the blood and also the functioning of the liver and kidneys. This is why red clover is often found in liver detoxifying formulas. The red clover helps detoxify the liver, which enables the liver to do its job of detoxifying the blood. Gotu Kola stimulates the blood, and is also an important herb in helping to stimulate mental activity, which it does by stimulating circulation to the brain. In Chinese medicine, Gotu Kola was used to improve memory. Recent studies show Gotu Kola also helps in Alzheimer’s Xu et. Al (2008) This may be due to the herb’s antioxidant quality or that this herb reduces an oxidant known as nitric oxide, which is triggered by the build-up in the brain of beta-amyloid plaques associated with Alzheimers. The dwarf almond is a stimulating herb because it stimulates both respiration and improves digestion.

Medicinal herbs that do not have a distinct color to their flowers or are non-flowering are going to be classified under the color green. We hypothesize that green non-flowering herbs are building herbs that help support the body by being high in vitamins and nutrients. Some such herbs that are high in vitamins and nutrients are: Stinging Nettle, Mugwort, Aloe, Yellow dock, Blue Cohosh, Stoneroot, Wild Yam, and Horsetail. These herbs are supportive due to their nutritional value. Stinging Nettles are extremely high in minerals and vitamins. Yellow Dock stimulates the liver and is a laxative. They are a very high source or iron and also vitamin A, and vitamin K. Mugwort is also very nutritive and contains vitamin A, and vitamin K. Other than being extremely nutritive, a lot of green flowering and non-flowering medicinal herbs are called tonics. Tonic herbs nourish specific cells, tissues, organs, and can be used for long periods of time. Tonic herbs can help normalize the body by restoring balance by either increasing an action or decreasing, depending on what the body needs. Green medicinal herbs that are tonics include Blue Cohosh, Wild Yam, Horsetail, and Stinging Nettles. More specifically, False Unicorn Root is a uterine tonic, Aloe is a bitter tonic and Mugwort is a liver tonic. Seabuckthorn is good for the stomach, kidneys, ulcers, skin cancer, skin burns, and orange berries.

We hypothesize that white flowering herbs will either be sedative or affect the nervous system. A lot of white flowering herbs are part of the mint family. Basil, Chamomile, Spearmint, Catnip, Feverfew, Valeriana, Lemon Balm and Lemon Verbena are all white flowering herbs that are in the mint family. A lot of white flowering herbs are sedatives. A sedative lowers blood pressure and is calming. Basil, Chamomile, Spearmint, Catnip, Feverfew, Valerian, Lemon Balm, Valerian Off., Cramp Bark, Black Cohosh and Lemon Verbena are all sedatives. A lot of white flowers herbs are also nerviness. A nervine is something that supports the nervous system. Black Cohosh, Basil, Spearmint, and Chamomile are nerviness. Cleavers are lymphatic and cleanse the lymphatic system and cools down any “hot” inflammation. Chamomile, Lemon Verbena, Lemon Balm, Basil, Spearmint, Catnip, Valerian, Cramp Bark, and Black Cohosh are antispasmodic. Elderberry is one of the top herbs used to cure colds and flus. While the flowers of the plant are white, the berries themselves are purple. It is important to note that if an herb calms down the nervous system or muscles, then it will in turn have a positive effect on the digestive system.

Experimental Procedure. By comparing our classification system to a random list of commonly used herbs [O’Hara et al., 1998], we will see if our hypothesized effects are congruent with the common uses of these herbs. We hypothesized that white will affect the nervous system or be a sedative. Chamomile is listed as a sedative, which is in line with our hypothesis, Feverfew helps with headaches and helps diarrhea in children, Saw Palmetto effect’s androgen and estrogen receptors, and Valerian is spasmolytic. Ginseng is listed as adaptogenic, reducing stress, having estrogenic and androgenic effects, and improving cognitive functioning. Goldenseal is not in line with our hypothesis becauses it is listed as having berberine and antiseptic effects. We hypothesized that purple should either be an adpatogen or support the immune system. Echinacea is listed as helping the immune system. Garlic is light purple/light pink and helps the immune system with its antioxidant and antibacterial properties. It also lowers blood pressure. Milk Thistle helps the immune system by protecting against hepatitis and cirrhosis and is also antioxidant. We predict yellow helps in digestion and St. John’s Wort helps digestion by restoring bowel tone, reducing inflammation. Because some serotonin is produced in your intestines, this explains the connection between the digestion improvement and alleviation of depression. We hypothesize that red will affect the blood. Ginger is listed as helping against nausea, which is not in line with the hypothesis. Garlic is listed as being antiplatelet (helping against blood clots) and is antihypertensive, which is in line with our hypothesis.

Plants with adaptogenic properties

Purple: Lycium barbarum (Solanaceae) – antioxidant

Astragalus membranaceus (Fabaceae)- antibacterial, antioxidant, cardiotonic, diuretic, febrifuge, hypoglycaemic, tonic, tterine tonic, vasodilator.

Arctium lappa (Asteraceae) – alterative that moves body into a state of nourishment, promotes healing of wounds. Works through the liver and kidneys to remove waste, so it’s great for the end result of skin. Mildly bitter, aids in digestion (Rost, 2009)

Ocimum sanctum (Lamiaceae) – antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-stress, anti-toxic effect, anti-tussive, anti-ulcer, cardiovascular activity, diaphoretic, febrifuge, nervine, antispasmodic, antibacterial, antiseptic, wound-healing activity.

Glycyrrhiza glabra (Fabaceae)- adaptogen, helps stomach ulcers, helps bronchitis and sore throats because it is mucilangenous.

White: Panax ginseng (Araliaceae) -adap­to­gen. Its adaptonogenic qualities means it prevents against infectious diseases, lessens muscular fatigue. It helps balance hypertension and reducse damage from radiation. It has effects on adrenal cortex, also has affinity for balancing either a too low or too high blood pressure – circulatory affinity (Rost, 2009).

Green (orange berries): Hyppophae rhamnoides (Eleagnacceae) -skin disease, skin cancer, skin burn, ulcers.

Plants used for treatment of upper respiratory tract diseases

Bright Blue: Symphytum officinale (Boraginaceae)- anodyne, alterative, anti-inflammatory, antiheumatic, antiseptic, astringent, biogenic stimulator, demulcent, emollient, expectorant, haemostatic, immune stimulant, lung tonic, nutritive, pectoral, Refrigerant, styptic, vulnerary, yin tonic, nutritive tonic. Vulnerary, demulcent, one of the best herbs for wound healing. Anti-inflammatory and soothing to a dry digestive tract, astringent

Salvia nemorosa L. (Lamiaceae)- has anti-nocioceptive activities (helps in the head against pain), anti-inflammatory.

Salvia pratensis L. (Lamiaceae)- bactericidal (against breathing diseases), heals ulcers and wounds, anti-asthmatical and helps inflammation. Leaves contain estrogen substance, vitamins B1 and C. Carminative, estrogen, astringent, antiseptic. Bitter and used as stimulant due to hypothermic effect.

Blue/Purple: Salvia verticillata L. (Lamiaceae)-antioxidant activity, anti-inflammatory.

Pulmonaria officinalis (Boraginaceae) Helps diseased lungs, chest and asthma. It is demulcent, expectorant, astringent, anti-inflammatory and vulnerary.

Blue: Campanula rotundifolia (Campanulaceae) -helps inflammation (of the mouth). Campanula trachelium-helps in pain in throat. Inflammatory and throat help.

Centaurea cyanus (Asteraceae) -astringent, reduces inflammation.

Viola mandshurica (Violaceae) – anti-asthmatic and anti-inflammatory.

Iris sibirica L. (Iridaceae) – it is an expectorant and anagelsic (treats pain).

 Purple: Thymus vulgaris (Lamiaceae) – antihelmintic, antibiotic, antifungal, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiseptic, antispasmodic, antitussive, aromatic, astringent, bronchial dilator, carminative, decongestant, diaphoretic, emmenagogue, expectorant, immune tonic, rejuvenative, rubefacient, sedative (in small), stimulant (in large), vermifuge, vulnerary. Strong antibacterial for mouth and lung infections, destroys intestinal worms. Relieves indigestion, coughs, and lung congestion. Prevents memory loss and inefficiency. Helps in mental stability (İbadullayeva, 2013).

Echinaceae purpurea (Asteraceae) -antioxidant, supports immune system, immune stimulant, anti-microbial, anticararrhal, and alterative (Rost 2009).

Plants for treatment of gastro-intestinal tract diseases

Hypericum perforatum (Hypericaceae) – anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, antispasmodic, aromatic, astringent, antidepressant, cholagogue, digestive, diuretic, expectorant, nervine, resolvent, stimulant, vermifuge vulnerary, sedative, analgesic, antiseptic. Immune stimulant, good for retro-viral infections, expectorant, antibacterial, speeds wound and burn healing, antidepressant.

Yellow: Hamamelis virginiana – astringent, anti-hemorrhagic, anti-inflammatory, antihydrotic, haemostatic, homeopathy, miscellany, sedative, stypic, tonic.

Calendula officinalis (Asteraceae) – anti-inflammatory, astringent, styptic, emmenagogue, vulnerary, lymphatic, antimicrobial, antifungal. Excellent for digestive inflammation and ulcers. Cholagogue for relief of gallbladder problems. Good for wounds, ulcers, burns, abscesses. It is a bitter herb

Turnera aphrodisiaca (Passifloraceae) tonic, antidepressant, euphoric, aphrodisiac, urinary antiseptic, aperient, mild laxative, aphrodisiac, digestive, infertility, tonic, astringent, purgative, stimulant. Mood elevating that helps calm anxiety and induce a relaxed state of mind. Aphrodisiac (Rost 2009)

Taraxacum officinale (Asteraceae) -alterative, anti-rheumatic, astringent, blood purifier, cholagogue, carminative, bitter, detergent, diuretic, diaphoretic, laxative, nutritive tonic, stimulant, stomach, sudorific, tonic. Liver tonic, hepatic “cools” or detoxifies the liver, cholagogue decongests the gallbladder by increasing bile flow, choleretic action promotes bile production, alterative relieving skin disorders, laxative, bitter, lots of potassium.

Verbascum thapsus (Scrophulariaceae) – expectorant, respiratory remedy because it tones the mucous membrane, reduces inflammation, stimulates antispasmodic, alterative, astringent, anodyne, vulnerary, anti-infammatory. Very good for inflammation of the skin fluid production. Demulcent, diuretic, nervine (Rost 2009).

Inula helenium (Asteraceae) -expectorant, antispasmodic, carminative, analgesic, rejuvenative.

Foeniculum vulgare (Apiaceae) Carminative, stimulates digestion and appetite, antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory, galactogogue.

Orange/yellow: Anthemis tinctoria L. (Asteraceae). Bitter tonic and antispasmodic

Anthyllis vulneraria L. (Fabaceae) – antiseptic, antispasmodic, astringent, bitter tonic, cholagogue, diuretic, immune stimulant, support metabolism, also for wound healing

Caltha palustris L. (Ranunculaceae) – anodyne, antispasmodic, diaphoretic, diuretic, expectorant. Bitter!

Cornus mas L. (Cornaceae) -astringent. Used in cases of fevers and diarrhea. Helps in stomach aches, cramps, diarrhea

Colutea arborescens L. (Fabaceae) Diuretic, purgative, laxative.

Green, Reddishbrown/whitishgreen: Rumex crispus (Polygonaceae)-alterative, astringent, laxative, antipyretic. Hepatic liver stimulant (cleansing) and laxative. Cholagogue. Alterative for oily and exudative skin conditions. Helps remove metabolic waste from the blood = better skin.

Cichorium intybus (Asteraceae)-appetizer, cardiac, cholagogue, depurative, digestive, diuretic, hypoglycaemic, laxative, tonic, warts.

Artemisia vulgaris emmenagogue, antispasmodic, hemostatic, diaphoretic, anthelmintic, antiseptic bitter tonic and digestive stimulant, antioxidant, cholagogue, nervine tonic, eases tension, emmenagogue.

Urtica dioica (Urticaceae) -alterative, detoxifying agent which clears out waste, streghtens the mucosa of the urinary, digestive, and respiratory system. Prevents uric acid buildup in joints and helps in arthritis. Astringent so it helps in excessive blood loss and sischarge. Good prostate tonic. Diuretic and hypotensive

 Dioscorea villosa (Dioscoreaceae) -antiinflammatory, antispasmodic, cholagogue, contraceptive, diaphoretic, homeopathy, vasodilator.

 Aloe vera (Liliaceae) -alterative, bitter tonic, rejuvenative, emmenagogue, purgative, vulnerary, laxative

Equisetum arvense (Equisetaceae) anodyne, antiseptic, astringent, cardiac, carminative, diaphoretic, diuretic, galactogogue, haemostatic, homeopathy, nervine, vulnerary.

Yellowish green: Caulophyllum thalic­troides (Berberidaceae) antibiotic, anti-inflammatory, anthelmintic, antispasmodic, diaphoretic, diuretic, emmenagogue, immune-stimulating, antimicrobial

White: Galium aparine (Rubiaceae) -lymphatic, lymphatic cleanser that relives swelling, especially where there is an acute “hot” inflammation, it is a cooling diuretic that soothes an irritable urinary tracts; tonic, and alterative (Rost 2009)

Hydrastis canadensis (Ranunculaceae)- Hepatic, cholagogue, bitter digestive stimulant, antimicrobial, great tonic stimulant for profusely excreting mucous membranes, anticatarrhal, astringent, emmenagogue

Plants for improving blood circulation

Red: Zingiber officinale (Zingiberaceae) -adjuvant, antiemetic, analgesic appetizer, aromatic, carminative, diaphoretic, expectorant, indegestionrubefacient, sialagogue, stimulant,

Stimulant, warming ny increasing peripheral circulation; very great fr nausea and motion sickness, anodyne for intensinal pain, carminative, anti-spasmodic in digestive tract, anti-inflammatory, emmenagogue, anti-microbiral (Rost 2009)

Rosa canina L. (Rosaceae) Stimulating. It lowers the elevated cholesterol levels in our bloodstream, and rose water is astringent, cardiovascular system stimulant

Papaver somniferum L. (Papaveraceae) -Stimulant that induces euphoria and reduces anxieties and tensions, analgesic

Valeriana sambucifolia Mikan fil. (Valerianaceae) -Nervine tonic, stimulating, good for poor blood circulation, antispasmodic and emmenagogue. (Rost 2009)

Rhododendron arboreum Sm. (Ericaceae)- Anti-inflammatory, anti-cocipceptive, heptoprotective, anti-diabetic, antioxidant

Althaea rosea (L.) Cav. (Malvaceae) -antiiflammatory, astringent, demulcent, emollient.

Improves blood circulation

Trifolium pratense (Fabaceae) – -alterative, anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, dermatonic, diuretic, expectorant, sedative. Blood cleanser, nutritive, galactagogue (İbadullayeva et al., 2013)

Eugenia caryophyllata (Myrtaceae) – Stimulant, carminative, aphrodisiac, expectorant. Eliminate tooth ache, treats flu, sore muscles, arthritis, colds, and bronchial congestion, and is heating. Helps in pain. As a stimulant clove helps overcome nervousness, stress, and mental fatigue, and poor memory.

Light purple/light pink: Allium sativum (Liliaceae) -antioxidant, antibiotic, antimicrobial, antiseptic, antiviral, anthelmintic. Good for colds, chronic bronchitis, and infections.

Reduces blood pressure and cholesterol (Gasimov et al., 201)

Amigdalus nana L. (Rosaceae) – In small amounts, the hydrocyanic acid of the plant

stimulates respiration and improves digestion.

Silybum marianum (Asteraceae) -antidepressant, antioxidant, appetite stimulant, Astringent,

Bitter, cholagogue, demulcent, diaphoretic, diuretic, emetic, emmenagogue, galactagogue, hepatic, hepatoprotective, stimulant, stomachic, tonic. Powerful liver detoxifier, increases secretion and flow of bile. Galactagogue (İbadullayeva).

Centella asiatica (Mackinlayaceae) – nervine, Rejuvenative, alterative, febrifuge, diuretic, helps heal wounds

White: Sambucus nigra (Caprifoliaceae) -Leaves externally- vulnerary and emollient; internally leaves are purgative, expectorant, diuretic, and diaphoretic. its flowers are diaphoretic, and gently stimulating. Berries are diaphoretic, diuretic, aperients. Very well known for curing colds, fues, skin eruptionsm tension, constipation.

Plants used for treatment of CNS diseases

Ocimum basilicum (Lamiaceae) antifungal, antioxidant, antispasmodic, aromatic, carminative, cephalic, diaphoretic/sudorific, digestive, emmenagogue, expectorant, febrifuge, galactagogue, nervine, refrigerant, stimulant, stomachic, relives headache, sinus congestion, nauseam ubdegestionm sore muscles, and herpes. Stimulates the adrenal glands and menstruation. Reduces stress and rattled nerves, and menta fatigue.

Matricaria recutita (Asteraceae) Sedative, carminative, anodyne, anti-inflamma­tory, pain relieving, antispasmodic for easing muscle cramps; nervine (İbadullayeva).

Mentha spicata (Lamiaceae) antiemetic, antiseptic, antispasmodic, cancer, carminative, diuretic, nervine poultice, restorative, stimulant, stomachic. stimulant (Rost 2009).

Nepeta cataria (Lamiaceae) – Anaesthetic, antibiotic, anodyne, antispasmodic, aromatic, astringent (Mamedova)

Tanacetum parthenium (Lamiaceae) – antiecchymotic, antiinflammatory, antispasmodic, aperient, bitter, carminative, emmenagogue, nervine, sedative, stimulant, stings, stomachic, vasodilator, vermifuge, carminative, diaphoretic, diuretic, nervine.

Valeriana officinalis (Valerianaceae) -Nervine, antispasmodic, sedative, carminative

Melissa officinalis (Lamiaceae) – Antispasmodic, antiviral, carminative, cholinergic activities diaphoretic, digestive tonic, emmenago­gue, febrifuge, hypotensive, memory-impro­ving (due to cholinergic activities identified in extracts of lemon balm), nervine, rejuvenative, sedative, sleep disorders, stomach tonic. Reduces fevers in a cold or flu as it induces mild perspiration. Aids digestion, reduces flatulen­ce. Antiviral and used for herpes. Treats indigestion, lung congestion, high blood pressure, menstrual problems, and infertility. Fights inflammation and viral infections such as strep. Its sedative to it can help in distress, shock, depression, a nervousness, and insomnia.

Aloysia citrodor (Lamiaceae) -antispasmodic, aromatherapy, astringent, febrifuge, sedative, stomachic.

Viburnum opulus (Adoxaceae) -antispasmodic that relives voluntary and involuntary muscle spasms, helps in convulsions, asthma, thigh and back pain, anti-inflammatory and a nervine, astringent

Cimicifiga racemosa (Ranunculaceae) -antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, nervine (Rost, 2009)

Purple: Salvia officinalis (Lamiaceae)-al­te­ra­tive, antioxidant, antiseptic, antispasmodic, astringent, carminative, cholagogue, emmenagogue, galactofuge, rejuvenative, stimulant, tonic, vasodilator. Antiseptic that treats throat and mouth infections. Hormonal properties help regulate both the mentraul and menopausal cycle and decrease lactation. Reduces perspiration, oily skin, and acne. Helps those suffering from nervous devility, excessive sexual desire, overexertion, and insomnia.

Lavandula angustifolia (Lamiaceae) – analgesic, antibacterial, antidepressant, antifungal, antirheumatic, antiseptic, antispasmodic, aromatic, carminative, cholagogue, digestive tonic, diuretic, nervine, rubefacient, sedative, stimulant, stomach tonic.

Treats lung, sinus, and vaginal infections, relieves muscle pain, headaches, and other types of inflammation. Used for digestive disturbances and boosts immunity. A skin-cell generator, prevents scarring and stretch marks. Helps central nervous system problems and insomnia.

Vitex agnus-cactus (Verbenaceae) Uterine tonic and stimulates and normalizes pituitary function (Rost 2009)

Lycium barbarum (Solanaceae)- adaptogen, antioxidant

Astragalus membranaceus (Fabaceae) – adaptogen, antibacterial, antioxidant, cardiotonic, diuretic, febrifuge, hypoglycaemic, tonic, uterine tonic, vasodilator

Arctium lappa (Asteraceae)-adaptogen, alterative that moves body into a state of nourishment, promotes healing of wounds. Works through the liver and kidneys to remove waste, so its great for the end result of skin. Midly bitter, aids in digestion.

Ocimum sanctum (Lamiaceae) – adaptogen, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-stress, anti-toxic effect, anti-tussive, anti-ulcer, cardiovascular activity, diaphoretic, febrifuge, nervine, antispasmodic, antibacterial, antiseptic, wound-healing activity

Glycyrrhiza glabra (Fabaceae)- adaptogen, helps stomach ulcers, bronchitis, sore throats, because it is mucilangenous

Lycium barbarum (Solanaceae) – adaptogen, antioxidant

Blue/Purple: Scutellaria lateriflora (Lamiaceae)- Nerve tonic, mild sedative, anti-sasmodic. Primary nervous system tonic and relaxant for nerve and muscle tension. Good for seizures and epilepsy. Cardiac relaxant. Bitter

Rosmarinus officinalis (Lamiaceae) Reduces stress Circulatory and nerve stimulant, used for tension headache assosciated with dyspepsia. Antibacterial, antifungal. Stimulates poor blood circulation, low pressure, adrenal glands, and gallbladder. Lowers cholesterol and relieves lung congestion, sore throat, and canker sores. Improves memory and is a spiritual streghtening herb.

White: Serenoa repens (Arecaceae)-affects androgen and estrogen levels

A reliable peripheral vasodilator, excellent

Green: Ginkgo biloba (Ginkgoaceae) Slows cognitive deterioration supportive agent to help remedy erectile dysfunction. Increases blood circulation and flow of oxygen to the brain and helps counter the effects of antideoressants on sexual function. It has a direct effect on endothelial cells that enhance blood flow of both penile arteries and veins without any change in systemic blood pressure. Support sexual function by enhancing blood circulation while concurrently improving the nitric oxide pathways.

Yellow: Eschscholzia californica -nervine relaxant, antidepressant.

Conclusion. In conclusion, our hypothesis predicted that purple flowering herbs will either be adoptogenic or support the immune system, and three out of three herbs fit this description from the List of 12 Common Herbs. There were no blue flowering herbs listed. One out of 2 red flowering herbs fit our hypothesis, 1 out of 1 herbs fit out hypothesis for yellow flowers, 5 out of six white flowering herbs fit our hypothesis, and there were no non-flowering herbs in the list. The results from our research show that there is a correlation between white flowering herbs having sedative or affecting the nervous system, purple in being either adaptogenic or immune supportive, yellow with helping the stomach, and perhaps that red effects the blood. This is in line with our hypothesis that there is a correlation between the color of medicinal plants’ flowers and their effects on the body. Further investigation should determine shared biologically active compounds medicinal plants of a certain color have that may affect their flower color. It is important to continue research as there is no previous research in this area. Future research will help choose appropriate herbs for clinical studies.

Acknowledgment. Authors very thankful to University of Massachusetts at Amherst student Alina A. Gusev for help in preparing this material



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