Vagif V. Atamov

DOI: 10.30546/abc.2022.1.1.52

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Recep Tayyip Erdogan University, Rise, Turkey,


Abstract: This study of the years 2007-2012 in Azerbaijan’s water-marsh vegetation, plants spread was carried out with the aim of determining the troops. According to phytosociological features five types of habitat and a total of 101 plant associations and groupings were determined. Of these, 33 units of water to the coastal marshes troops 31, 13 birliklər wet çimən, aquatic forest birliklər 8, hidrohalofit to consist of the 17 plant associations.

Azerbaijan’s water-marsh vegetation cooperation for the 15 new plants have been identified. Vegetation formation of a at; Carex , Juncus , Ranunculus, Potamogeton, Schoeneplectus, Cyperus, Salix, Tamarix, Phragmites, Arundo belonging to the genus, in particular: Pragmites austuralis, Juncus litoralis, J. acutus, Typha latifolia, T. angustifolia, Schoeneplectus marittimus, Potamogeton salicifolius, P. pectinatus, Najas minor ssp. intermedia, N. minor ssp. armata, N. minor ssp. marina, Ceratophyllum submerse, C. demersum, Polygonum amfibium taxa dense population are. Water-marsh vejetation spread in 92% of the herbaceous, 8% woody plants body.

Rivers, streams, creeks and water channels around the flora richer (312 taxa), marshes (160) , still slow flowing water and quaint water lakes (127), salt lakes and the sea coast halophytic marsh and sand dunes as habitats are even poorer (114). Today: Nymphetum albae, Nelimbio caspici-Nymphetum albae, Trapetum hyrcanae, Butometum umbellati, Spargenieto-Menyantetum trifoliati areal narrowing , which is under threat and in need of protection associations. Azerbaijan’s water -marsh vegetation in the various hazard categories entered a total of 68 taxa that and they ; 25 VI (13.5%) , each of which is 11 to LR ( cd) and LR (lc ) (2.2%) , 10 LR (nt ) (2.0%) , 5 of the taxa (1.0%) were identified as belonging to EN and DD category.


Keywords: Water-marsh, ecosystems, vegetation, plant diversity, Azerbaijan



Introduction. There are 4500 vascular plants belonging to 125 families and 920 genera in the territory of Azerbaijan [Flora of Azerbaijan, 1950-1961]. According to the general number of species, the vegetation of Azerbaijan is quite rich compared to other republics of the Caucasus. The plant species seen in our country cover 66% of all plant species seen in the Caucasus [Grosshaym, 1936, 1948].

One of the reasons why our country’s vegetation and flora is rich is that it has different ecological environments and habitat diversity. One of these ecological environments is water-swamp areas.

Its depth is less than 6 meters, some common property has sweet, flat and brackish water, lakes, swamps, stagnant stocks of streams, floodplains, sea shores, gulfs, rivers transform into watery ecosystems.

There are 450 lakes in Azerbaijan with a total surface area of ​​395 km2. These are divided into 7 types as: glacial lakes, flooded lakes, weir sourced lakes, lagoon sourced lakes, karst sourced lakes, landslide sourced lakes and relict sourced lakes [Mammadov, 2011].

Settled in different regions of Azerbaijan; Sarisu (65, Agzibirchala (13.8), Akgol (56.2), Candargol (10.6), Buyuk Alagol (5.1), Gokgol (0.79), Hajigabul (8.4) , Buyuk-Shor (16.2), Ashık Kara (1.76), and Karachug (0.45 lakes are among the most important areas where water-swamp vegetation spreads [Sultanov, 2011].

The longest river in Azerbaijan is the Kur River, which is 1,364 km long and empties into the Caspian Sea. Aras river is 1.072 km long. The largest natural lake is Sarısu Lake with 67.0 km², and the largest artificial lake is Mingachevir Dam Lake with 605.0 km².

There are many plants that love the aquatic environment and spread around lakes and their surroundings, swamps and stagnant waters, channels and their surroundings, streams, lakes, ponds, artificial dam lakes, which form an important part of Azerbaijan’s land. These are plants that love aquatic and swampy environments and form associations in these environments. This type of plants can be found in all regions of Azerbaijan, in plains and mountainous lands. The water-swamp plant associations are among the relict plant associations and were not affected by the icing cycle and caused the formation of aquatic ecocenoses [Grossheym, 1940]. Water-swamp plants spread widely on the edges of lakes, marshes, reservoirs and canals due to their long evolutionary development time due to their adaptations.

Water-swamp ecosystems are widespread all over the world [Kats, 1961; Aliyev, 1969; Grandstein & Smittenberg, 1977; Katanskaya, 1981; Seçmen & Leblebici, 1984; Bechet & Altan, 1994; Chakan & Temiz, 1993; Chivelek & Chetin, 1993; Golub and Losev, 1991].

Water-swamp vegetation has been explored in many parts of the world. Wetlands in Turkey [Behchet, 1994a, b; Seçen and Leblebiçi 1996; Chakan et al. 2003; Karaomeroglu, 2007], salty wetlands [Aydogdu et al.,  2002; Hamzaoglu and Aksoy 2009], flooded areas [Kutbay et al. 1998;  Özen, 2010; Kavğacı, 2010] and dune fields [Kılınç and Özkanca 1991;  Kılınç and Karaer 1995; Karaer et al., 1997; Çakan et al., 2003; Karagmeroğlu, 2007] some phytosociological studies have been carried out.

[Sechmen and Leblebici 1996] recorded that there are 23 plant associations in the wetlands of Turkey, 31 in coastal meadows, 7 in wet meadows, 1 in wet tree assemblages, and 21 plant associations in salty associations.

[Richard Hırıvnak 2002a., 2002b] gave the vegetation classification of Potametea, Lemnetea and Charetea classes in the region in his studies on the distribution and classification of aquatic plant communities of Slovakia and Bulgaria and examined the phytosociological properties of plant associations belonging to these classes.

İnvestigated the floristic composition of aquatic macrophytes of teas in Bulgaria and in this study divided the aquatic flora of the region into three groups as hydrophytes, helophytes and amphiphytes. [Yucel, 2010] investigated the heavy metal biomonitor feature of Myriophyllum spicatum, which is distributed along the Porsuk River in Turkey [Gecheva et al. et al 2013].

Some of these associations are also found in the water-swamp plant associations of the high mountainous regions of Azerbaijan [Ocakverdi et al. 2009].

Examined the plant associations of the forest vegetation around Taiwan’s Yuanyang Lake and showed that the water-swamp type forest associations are located at an altitude of 1650-2432 m above sea level [Chang-Hung Chou et al., 2000].

[Korkmaz et al. 2012] In a study he carried out in the Golardi Wildlife Protection Area within the borders of Samsun Province in Turkey; It has psammophyte, hygrophyte and forest type vegetation and made a syntaxonomic evaluation of these types. Among the vegetation types determined in this study, it is seen that the degree of similarity among the plant associations found in the coastal areas of the Caspian Sea of ​​Azerbaijan is high [Atamov, 2007].

Water-swamp vegetation in the Azerbaijani land is common in many botanists [Grossheym, 1936, 1948; Prilipko, 1970; Aliyev, 1969; Babayev, 1974; Efendiyeva, 1998; Hajiyev, 1970; Hajiyev et al, 1991; Atamov, 2008; Talibov, Ibrahimov, 2008; Ibrahimov, 2008; Musayev,, 2010]. However, there is a need to make a classification of the syntaxonomic structure of the vegetation in these ecosystems, which is accepted in the world today. In order to explain the syntaxonomic structure of such areas, new and detailed studies are needed [Mucina, 1997].

In the vegetation of Azerbaijan, these ecosystems are more widespread in regular areas and are also encountered in mountainous regions.

One of the regions where this vegetation type is most common is the Lankaran plain located in the southeast of Azerbaijan. In this region, there are many lakes, ponds, swamps and gulfs in orderly parts [Mammedov, 2011]. The Big and Little Kizilagac Bays, which form a natural water-swamp ecosystem in the region and are on the Ramsar list, are among the most important areas in this sense [Sultanov, 2000].

In this area, which is known as the migration route of many birds, the water-swamp vegetation is. It was explored by [Grossheym, 1936, 1948] and later by Aliyev.

[Aliyev, 1969] In the Lankaran plain where water-swamp vegetation is common in Azerbaijan, [Babayev, 1974] İn the high mountain areas of the Lesser Caucasus, [Efendiyeva, 1989] conducted research on the Absheron peninsula, and [Musayev, 2010] on the Kur-Araz plain for many years.

The general vegetation and water-swamp areas of Nakhchivan have also been investigated for many years by Talibov and Ibrahimov. As a result of the studies carried out by these researchers, we see that there are water-swamp ecosystems in different regions of Nakhchivan, adding many taxa to the flora as new records [Talibov and İbrahimov, 2008].

Mammadov shows that factors such as ecological conditions of the environment, water composition, chemical content, salinity degree, altitude above sea level, and temperature play an important role in the emergence of differences in lakes in curing.

While the mesophyll species that prefer ecologically less humid habitats settle in the area, the hygrophilous species that prefer flooded habitats withdraw from the area and a different floristic and structural structure develops. Because there is a strong correlation between the water table depth, soil water content and wetland types in flooded areas and seaside plains (Meendino et al., 1990).

According to the warth the study area can be diveded as temperate zone (over 1800m.), hot zone (between 700-1500m) and extreme hot zone (between 0-500m.).

Annual rainfall per year at the water-marsh vegetation zones is differs between 300-650(700)mm. Summers are extremely hot while winters are cold. The study area is under continental climate which determine the character of the plant cover.

Kur-Araz plain, Kacheti and Avtaran are at the Caucas provence of Azerbaijan which has a tempature betwwen +2 or +3 Co in winters (climate Azerbaijan, 1968.)

In summers izoterm changes in different direction, it rises from North-west to South-east (pic. 1,2).




Picture 1. The distribution of Temperature and Rainfall (P. mm) according in Water-Marsh regions of Azerbaijan between 1990-2013



Picture 2. Temperature (0C) Kur-Aras Lowland 300m 13,4 376,6 Rain (mm)




The physical-geographical and soil-climatic conditions of the region, vertical belting and many other features also affect the development of vegetation. Desert, semi-desert and water-swamp plants have developed up to 200 meters high in the plains of Azerbaijan. Water-swamp ecosystems are also encountered in the mountainous and high mountain regions of Azerbaijan, along with the regular sections. Especially in the subalpine and alpine belts of the Greater and Lesser Caucasus Mountains, many mountain lakes, streams and streams are encountered.

Water-swamp plant associations are seen in the form of spots against the background of desert and semi-desert type plant groups, but in the coastal areas of many lakes and especially on the Caspian coast, Mil, Mugan and Shirvan plains.

Halophytic desert, semi-desert vegetation spreads in the plains along the rivers of Shirvan, Mugan, Mil, Jeyranchol, Kobustan and Aras. In Kur-Aras, Kobustan, and Ceyranchol, zonal formations (Artemisetum) covered a larger area. Other formations, Salsoletum dendroidesae, (Kur-Aras) and Salsoletum nodulosae (Kobustan, Nakhichevan) units are common.

One of the most characteristic plant associations for these lands is the gallery forests formed by water-loving tree species. In particular, the main types of forests along the Kur and Aras river valleys are Populus, Alnus, Fraxsinus, Salix, Eleagnus, Tamarix etc. species belonging to the genus.

Material and Method. Field studies between 2007-2013 in the lakes and marshes settled in the plain and mountainous regions of Azerbaijan, in the coastal areas, especially the Lankaran plain (Great and Little Alder Agac Bay), Samur-Devechi plain (Devechi Harbour), Candar Lake and the lowland and mountainous areas of Nakhchivan. sections (Batabat lake, Araz deryaçası, Goygol lake in Ordubad land), Kur-Araz plain (Hacıgabul, Sarısu) and Absheron peninsula (Masazır duz lake, Lokbatan and Kanlıgöl).

Plants were collected at different vegetation periods and in all seasons. The identification of the collected plant specimens was made according to the 8-volume “Flora of Azerbaijan”. Identified plant samples are kept in the Herbarium Laboratory of the Botanical Institute of the Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences. Rare, endemic and threatened species were evaluated according to the Red Book of Azerbaijan. The life forms of plants are given according to the [Raunkier, 1934] system. Phytosociological properties and formation of vegetation tables of plant associations Syntaxonomic nomenclature of associations according to the “smallest area” principle according to the [Braun-Blanquet, 1964] method [Weber et al., 2000] was made according to.

Results. As a result of this research, the water-swamp vegetation of Azerbaijan was investigated according to the Braun-Blanquet(1964) method and the syntaxonomic evaluation result is given below.



  1. In-water (Hydatophyte) units

They are pure plant plants whose bodies settle on or in water in slow-flowing streams, lakes and sea coasts, in gulfs, in places where the water depth is not more than 6 m.


Class: Charetea Fukarek ex Krausch 1964

Ordo: Charetalia Sauer ex Krause ex Krausch 1964

Alyans: Charion vulgaris (Krause et Leng 1977) Krause 1981

Association: Charetum vulgaris Collion 1957

Potamogeteneto natansi-Charetum vulgaris MM & VA 2013

Class: Ruppietea

Ordo: Ruppietalia

Alyans: Ruppion marittimi

Association: Ruppietum maritimae Beguinot

Class: Lemnetea De Bolos et Masclans 1955

Ordo: Lemnetalia minoris De Bolos et Masclans 1955

Alyans: Lemnion minoris De Bolos et Masclans 1955

Association: Lemnetum minoris (Oberq. 1957) Millee et Görs 1960

Lemnetum gibbae Miyawaki et J. Tx. 1960

Lemnetum trisulcae Soo 1927

Class: Potametea Preising 1942

Ordo: Potametalia Koch 1926

Alyans: Potamion pusilli Heyny 1978

Association: Potametum pectinati Carstensen 1955

Alyans: Potamion lucentis Rivas-Martinez 1973

Association: Potametum lucentis Hueck 1931

Elodeetum canadensis Eggler 1933

Valisnerietum spiralis MM & VA 2013

Alyans: Potamion pusilli Heyny 1978

Association: Potametum perfoliati Koch 1926 em Pass 1964

Potametum pectinato-perfoliati Den Hortog Segal 1964

Potameto-Najadetum (Hartovic 1931) Micevski 1958

Potamogeteneto heterophylli-Vallisnerietum spiralis MM & VA 2013

Alyans: Najadion marinae

Association: Najadetum marinae (Oberd. 1957) Fukarek 1964

Najadeto marinae-Zannichellietum palustris MM & VA 2013

Ordo: Hydrocharitetalia Rubel 1933

Alyans: Hydrocharition Rubel 1933

Association: Hydrocharitetum morsus-ranae Van Langendonck 1935

Ceratophylletum demersi (Soo 1928) Eggler 1933

Ceratophylletum submersum MM & VA 2013

Alyans: Nymphaeion albae Oberd.1957

Association: Nymphaetum albae Vollmar 1957

Nelimbio caspici-Nymphaetum albae (Now.1930) Tomaz 1977

Trapetum hyrcanae (Muller et Görs 1960) M. Musaev 2013

Polygonetum amphibii Soo 1927

Potametum natantis Soo 1927

Urticularietum vulgaris MM & VA 2013

Spirodeletum polyrrhiza MM & VA 2013

Salvinietum natansi MM & AV 2013

Ordo: Callitricho-Batrachietalia Passarge 1978

Alyans: Ranunculion fluitantis Neuhause 1957

Association: Myriophylletum verticillati Soo. 1927

Myriophylletum spicati Soo 1927

Alyans: Ranunculion aquatilis Passarge 1964

Association: Potamo perfoliati-Ranunculetum scleratus MM & VA 2013

Ranunculetum trichophyllum MM & VA 2013


  1. Coastal (Hydrophyte) water-swamp troops

They are plant plants found in streams, lakes and swamps, in places where the water depth is not very deep. The lower parts of their trunks settle in the marsh, in the soil that is always or occasionally (seasonally) submerged (Helophyte plants). Since they have a developed root system, it becomes easy for them to form troops.

A large number of associations consisting of various species belonging to this class are encountered. It is not possible to set a definite limit among them. Because most of the taxa that participated in the formation of the union are common, but it seems that they passed on to other unions.Sınıf: Phragmitetea Koch 1926

Ordo: Phragmitetalia Koch 1926

Alyans: Phragmetion Koch 1926

Association: Phragmetum communis (Gams 1927) Schmale 1939

Typho angusfiliae-Phragmetum communis R. Tx Preis. 1942

Scirpo-Phragmetum communis W. Koch 1926

Calamagrostetum epigejosae MM & VA 2013

Ordo: Typhetalia MM& VA 2013

Alyans: Typhetion MM& VA 2013

Association: Typhetum angustifoliae Pignatti 1953

Typhetum latıfoliae (Soo 1927) Lang 1973

Potamogeto-Typhetum domingensis Vural Duman etal 1994

Typhetum domingensis MM & VA 2013

Polygonetum amphibii-hydropiperae MM & VA 2013

Irisetum pseudocorusae MM & VA 2013

Alyans: Scirpion MM & AV 2013

Association: Scirpetum lacustris Schamale 1939

Scirpetum marıtımı Beeft 1957

Hippurisetum vulgarisae MM & VA 2013

Ordo: Schoenoplectetalia MM & VA 2013

Alyans: Schoenoplection MM & VA 2013

Association: Schoenoplectetum litoralis MM & VA 2013

Potamogeton-Schoenoplectetum litoralis Vural Duman et. Al. 1994

Cladio-Schoenetum lacustris MM & VA 2013

Butometum umbellati (Konczak 1968) Phillippi 1973

Butomo-Eleocharitetum palustris Golub all. 1991

Triglochino-Bolboschoenetum marıtımı Behçet 1948

Class: Caricetea MM & VA 2013

Ordo: Caricetalia MM & VA 2013

Alyans: Caricion MM & VA 2013

Association: Caricetum paniculatae Wong 1926

Caricetum vesicariae Br.-Bl. et Denis 1926

Mentho aquaticiCaricetum ripariae MM & VA 2013

Mentho aquatici–Carietum pseudo-cyperae MM & VA 2013

Alyans: Heleocharion MM& AV 2013

Association: Heleocharetum iupalustrisi MM & VA 2013

Heleocharetum euuniglumisi MM & VA 2013

Atropietum giganteae MM & VA 2013

Aeluropetum littoralis-repensae MM & VA 2013

Aeluropo aequalis-Alopecuretum ventricosusae MM & VA 2013

Alopecuruetum ventricosusi MM & VA 2013

Mentho pulegio-Lithretum salicariae MM & VA 2013

Mentho pulegio-Oenanthetum aquaticae MM & VA 2013


  1. Wet (Hygromesophilic) grass associations

They are found in wet grasses and marshes with high humidity, in swampy areas and are the units dominated by hygromesophyte plants.

Alyans: Menyantion MM & VA 2013

Association: Carici-Menyantetum trifoliatae Behçet 1994

Sparganieto-Menyantetum trifoliatea MM & VA 2013

Sparganietum neglecti-Paspalietum digitariae MM & VA 2013

Rumici hydrolapathum-Sparganietum neclectum MM & VA 2013

Rumici hidrolapathum-Heracleum trachylomae MM & VA 2013

Geranio-Heraclietumm trachylomae MM & VA 2013

Veronico anagalis aquatico-Calthetum polypetalae MM & VA 013

Ordo: Cyperetalia MM & VA 013

Alyans: Cyperion MM & VA 2013

Association: Cyperetum longusiae MM & VA 2013

Paspalietum paspalodesi MM & VA 2013

Veronico anagalis-aquatico-Equsetum arvensae MM & VA 2013

Potamogetono natansi-Equisetum palustrsae MM & VA 2013

Alyans: Juncuion Braun-Blanq. 1931

Association: Juncetum lampolodesi MM & VA 2013

Juncetum inflexusi MM & VA 2013

Digraphietum arundinaceae MM & VA 2013

Beckmannietum eruciformi-syzigachnei MM & VA 2013

Catabrosetum aquaticae MM & VA 2013



  1. Wet (Hygromesophilic) grass associations

They are found in wet grasses and marshes with high humidity, in swampy areas and are the units dominated by hygromesophyte plants.

Soil layers:.a.b,c,d,e,f,g,h

This banding is more evident around the Kuchuk Gizilagaj Bay located on the Lankaran plain, around the Candar Lake located on the Georgian and Azerbaijan border, and in the areas along the Kur and Aras rivers (Figure 3.).

Class: Ammophiletea Br.-Bl. & Tuxen ex Westhoff, Dijk & Passchier 1946

Ordo: Ammophiletalia Br.-Bl. 1933

Alyans: Salici purpureae-Populetea nigrae Rivas-Martinez, Fernandez Conzalez, Loidi, Lousa et Penas 2001

Association: Salici purpureae-Populetum nigrae Rivas-Martinez, Fernandez Gonzalez, Loidi, Louse et Penas 2001

Populetum nigrae MM & VA 2013

Salixetum albae MM & VA 2013

Pterocaryo fraxinifoliae–Alnetum barbati Vural, Ocakverdi et.all. 2009

Alyans: Populetalia albae Br.-Bl.ex Thou 1948

Association: Populetum albae Br- Bl. Ex Tchou 1948

Alyans: Ammophilion australis Br.-Bl. 1921 corr. Rivas-Martinez, Costo& İzco in Revas-Martines, Lousa, T.E.iaz, Fernandez-Gonzalez &J.C.Costa 1990

Association: Verbasco thapsus-Hippophaetum rhamnoidesae MM & VA 2013

Rubeto-Elagnetum angustifoliae MM & VA 2013

Class: Phragmito-Magnocaricetea Klika et Novak 1941

Ordo: Phragmitetalia Koch 1926

Alyans: Phragmition Koch 1926

Association: Phragmeto communisae-Tamaricetum ramosissimae MM 2013

Ordo: Tamaricetalia MM & VA 2013

Alyans: Tamaricion MM & VA 2013

Association: Tamaricetum ramassisimae MM & VA 2013


  1. Hygrohalophyte plant associations

They are associations of hygrohalophyte plants that grow in salty lakes or sea shores, in watery places and salty marshes. These types of units are mostly distributed in the coastal areas of the Caspian Sea, in terrestrial habitats and in flooded areas in the close vicinity of lakes. Distributing in many salty and sweet flooded areas around the world: Halocnemum strobilaceum, Salicornia europea, Frankenia hirsuta, Halimionea verrucifera, Juncus littoralis, J. maritimum, J. acutus are dominant communities in many regions of Azerbaijan, adjacent to coastal dunes, They can spread to lightly salted areas.Sınıf: Salicorniotea Braun-Blanq. 1931

Ordo: Halostachyetalia (Grossh.) Topa 1938

Alyans: Halocnion MM & VA 2013

Association: Halocnetum strobilacei Oberd 1957

Haliminetum verruciferae E.Topa 1938

Carici extensor-Holocnetum strobilacei Vural, Duman et al. 1994

Salicornio europeo-Halocnemetum strobilacei MM & VA 2013

Carici extenco-Salicornietum europaei MM & VA 2013

Spergulario-Haliminetum verruciferae MM & VA 2013

Franketum hirsutae MM & VA 2013

Class: Juncetea Braun-Blanq. 1931

Ordo: Juncetalia marittimi Braun-Blanq. 1931

Alyans: Juncuion marittimi Braun-Blanq. 1931

Association: Limonio-Juncetum littoralis Vural, Duman et al. 1994

Halimio-Juncetum littoralis Vural, Duman et al 1994

Phragmito-Juncetum maritime Vural, Duman et al.1994

Juncetum maritimum Pignatti 1953

Juncetum litoralisal MM & VA 2013

Juncetum acutusae MM & VA 2013

Juncetum gerrdiae MM & VA 2013

Junco-Tamarici parviflorae Vural, Duman et al 1994

Tamaricetum ramosissimae

Alopecuretum ventricosal MM & VA 2013

If the plant associations are evaluated according to the “EUNIS habitat classification” (2004) system, it is seen that there are 101 plant associations belonging to 5 habitat types in our research area.



33 plant associations belonging to in-water associations, 31 coastal marsh associations, 13 wet (moist) grass associations, 8 aquatic forest units and 17 plant associations belonging to hydrohalophytes were encountered. Vegetation tables of each of these unions; It was created by considering parameters such as abundance and degree of overlap, life forms, and randomness class of plant taxa that make up the flora of the bird.

Haciyev and Musayev, together with the plant species found in the Caucasus and other regions, there are 240 unique to Azerbaijan only, but 140 plant species according to the newly published “Azerbaijan’s Red Book”  work. Among these plants, there are also plants that spread only in water-swamp ecosystems and are under the threat of extinction. It is important to protect water-swamp type habitats in order to protect them and not be threatened.

A total of 502 taxa distributed in the water-swamp ecosystems of Azerbaijan; There are four types of life forms: tree, bush, semi-shrub and herbaceous body [Musayev, et al., 2013].



Picture 3. Vertical profile of water-marsh plants of the Sea coast near the gulf of Gizilagaj: 1, 3 – Hygrophytes; 2,4-Hydrophytes; 5-6 Hydaphytes. Plants:1. Populus nigra, Tamarix ramosissima, Eleagnus angustifolia; 2. Phragmites communis, Schoenoplectus litoralis 3. Juncus acutus, J. İmflectus; 4. Nymphaea alba, 5. Potamogeton pectinatus, P. nodosus ; Ceratophyllum demersum; 6. Najas marina, N. minor




Most of these plants (92%) are herbaceous, while a few (8.0%) have woody stems. 63% of herbaceous stem plants are perennial and 29.1% are annual. 12 (2.4%) trees (Elaeagnus angustifolia, Salix acmophylla, Populus nigra, P.alba, P. hybrida, Tamarix ramosissima, Alnus glutinosa, Quercus araxsina, Pterocaria pterocarpa etc.) and 27 (5%, 4 of them) shrub and semi-bush stem plants were encountered. They participate as character species in the composition of aquatic forest associations. In the water-swamp ecosystems of Azerbaijan; Cryptophyte 219 (43.6%), therophyte 139 (27.7%), hemicryptophyte 101 (20.1%), phanerophyte 40 (7.8%), kamephyte 3 (0.6%) were found to be all life forms [Musayev et al, 2013].

The fact that cryptophytes, hemicryptophytes and therophytes are richer in water-swamp vegetation seems to be one of the characteristic features of this vegetation. Plants with this type of life form adapt easily to the water-swamp environment, and easily reproduce by vegetative means in the aquatic environment. Some of the aquatic plants with rhizome and perennial herbaceous stems grow easily in salty lakes and marshes, and some in freshwater lakes and marshes. These types of plants seem to be characteristic and distinctive and dominant species in water-swamp plant associations, sometimes forming pure and sometimes mixed associations.

It is noteworthy that plants with rhizomatous, reptilian and grassy stems are common and dominant species in the phytosociological structure of water-swamp vegetation. A total of 412 species, which are morphologically divided into different types but have herbaceous life forms, were encountered, of which 128 were rhizome (49%), 37 grass-forming (7.4%), 33 reptile (6%, 6), 14 of them are bulbous (2.8%) and 4 of them are herbaceous stems (0.8%).

40 woody stem plants were found living in a water-swamp environment. This constitutes 8.0% of the total water-swamp flora (table 1).

Water-swamp plant associations are found everywhere in Azerbaijan, starting from sea level to high mountain areas. It is found in wider areas, especially in the Absheron peninsula, Samur-Deveçi, Kur-Araz plain, Alazan-Eyricay, Mil-Mugan, Ceyranchol, Qobustan plains and in the orderly parts of Nakhchivan. Compared to the mountainous areas, the areas covered by the water-swamp vegetation in the regular areas are wider and poor in terms of plant diversity.

When we evaluate according to habitat diversity: plant diversity in habitats around rivers, streams, streams and water channels (312 taxa) is richer than habitats such as swamp (160), calm slow flowing water (127) and salty lakes and sea coast (114 taxa) (table 2).

Aliyev (1969) in his research on the water-swamp vegetation of Azerbaijan recorded a total of 94 plant associations, with 20 in wa­ter and 46 in both water and land (table 3).

It was revealed by Babayev (1974) that in the water-swamp vegetation of the high mountain parts of the Lesser Caucasus within the borders of Azerbaijan, there are a total of 51 plant associations: 20 in water, 31 both in water and on land (table 3).

Efendiyeva (1989) determined that in the water-swamp vegetation of the Absheron peninsula, there are 41 plant associations in total, 11 in  water  and  30  in  both  water  and  land (tab­le 3).

It was determined by Musayev  that there are 32 plant associations in the water-swamp vegetation of the Kur-Araz plain, 12 in water and 20 in both water and land (table 3).




Table 1. Distribution of Azerbaijan water-swamp flora according to biomorphological features


Morphological Type Number of species %
Woody 40 8,0
Herbaceous 246 49.0
Herbaceous with rhizomes 128 25.5
Grass-forming herbaceous 37 7.4
Creeping herbaceous 33 6.6
Bulbous herbaceous 14 2.8
Wrapper 4 0.8
Total 502 100


Table 2. Distribution of Azerbaijan water-swamp flora by ecosystems


Spreading Environment Total/ %
By height
Level 401 / 79,8
Mountainous 200 / 39,8
By habitat
Around Stream, Stream, Water Canal 312 / 62,1
Swamp 160 / 31,8
Still Slow Flowing Water, Cute Watery Lake 127 /25,3
Salt Lake, Sea Beach 114 / 22,7
Total 502 / 100



Table 3. Comparison of water-swamp vegetation in different regions of Azerbaijan



and habitats

On the territory

of Azerbaijan

(C.Aliyev, 1969)

Small Caucasus high

mountain lakes

(F.Babayev, 1974)

The peninsula

of Absheron



Kur-Araz plain

(M.Musayev, 2010)

According to this


Order 1 1 1 1 1
Formasya class/Classis 2 2 2 2 12
Formation group/Order 12 8 9 8 16
Form. subgroup 8 2 4
Formation 46 33 18 13 26
Asosation 94 62 37 30 100
Beach Water-Swamp 34
Wet grass 10
Water-Swamp Forest 9
Salt Lake and swamp 17
İn water 20 22 11 12 32
İn water  and on land 31 73 30 20 68



Researches and syntaxonomic classifications carried out by us have shown that the water-swamp vegetation of Azerbaijan consists of a total of 101 plant associations, of which 12 classes, 16 orders, 26 wedding rings (table 3).

Our studies on vegetation have been carried out based on the principle of dominance only, without considering the habitats, phytocenological structure of the vegetation, and ecologic conditions.

In the next stage, a more detailed investigation of the great lake and water-swamp ecosystems within the territory of Azerbaijan in the separation shows that new plant associations will emerge together with the new flora records.



  1. One of the vegetation types in the vegetation of Azerbaijan is the water-swamp vegetation. This vegetation spreads locally from the plain to the high mountain areas in Azerbaijan. They are plant associations that spread especially in the marsh environments of lakes and rivers, watering canals and artificial dam lakes.
  2. Water-swamp ecosystems are divided into 5 types according to habitat types: 1. In-water associations; 33 total; 2. 31 belonging to the coastal marsh units; 3. Age 13 belonging to the grass units; 4. 8 plant associations belonging to aquatic forest units, 5. 17 plant associations belonging to hydrohalophytes were encountered.
  3. Belonging to in-water units; Ruppietum maritimae, Lemnetum minoris, Lemnetum gibbae, Lemnetum trisulce, Potametum pectinati, Potametum lucentis, Potametum perfoliati, Potametum pectinato – perfoliati, Potameto Najadetum, Myriophylletum trisulce, Potametum pectinati, albametum pectinato – perfoliati, Potameto Najadetum, Myriophylletum slimetum spicinetum, Nebaphyllehyphaetacetum Polygonetum amphibii, Najadetum marinae, Ceratophylletum submersum, Myriophylletum verticillati; Belonging to the coastal marsh associations: Phragmitetum communis , Typho angusfiliae-Phragmitetum communis , Scirpo-Phragmitetum communis, Typhetum angistifoliae, Typhetum latıfoliae, Potamogetono- Typhetum domingensis, Scipetum lacustriteum-Scipetum latifoliae- , Triglochino-Bolboschoenetum martinis, Sparganietum poluedrum, Butometum umbellati, Caricetum paniculatae, Caricetum vesicariae, Typhetum domingensis, Schoenoplectetum litoralis, Calamagrostisetum epigejosae, Hippurisetum vulugarisae, Caricetum vesicariae, Typhetum domingensis; Belongs to wet (wet) grass associations: Carici-Menyantetum trifoliatae, Paspalietum paspalodesi, Juncetum lampolodesi, Juncetum inflexusi, Cyperetum longusiae, Sparganieto-Menyantetum trifoliatea; Belonging to the water-marsh forest associations: Salixetum albae, Phragmeto-Alnetum barbati, Populetum nigrae, Rubeto- Elagnetum angustifoliae, Verbasco thapsus-Hippophaetum rhamnoidesae, Phragmeto communisae-Tamaricetum grabatumae, Populetum alnetume, Populetumegrapulae; Belonging to the hydrohalophyte plant associations: Halocnetum strobilacei, Haliminetum verruciferae, Carici extensor-Holocnetum strobilacei, Salicornio europeo-Halocnemetum strobilacei, Carici extenco-Salicornietum europaei, Spergulario-Haliminetumitumiolitolitor-Jerrucicetum- maritime, Juncetum maritimum, Juncetum litoralisal, Juncetum acutusae, Juncetum gerrdiae, Junco-Tamarici parviflorae, Tamaricetum ramosissimae Alopecuretum ventricosal associations were defined.
  4. 15 new plant associations have been defined for the water-swamp vegetation of Azerbaijan.
  5. A total of 502 taxa belonging to 62 families and 208 genera were found in the water-swamp ecosystems of Azerbaijan. In vegetation; Poaceae, Cyperaceae, Ranunculaceae, Potomagetonaceae, Juncaceae, Tamarixaceae families and Carex, Juncus, Ranunculus, Potomageton, Schoeneplectus, Cyperus, Salix, Tamarix, Phragmites, Arundo, etc. taxa belonging to the genus are more represented.
  6. Population status: Pragmites austuralis, Juncus litoralis, J. acutus, Typha latipholia, T. angustifolia, Schoeneplectus marittimus, Potomageton salicifolius, P.pectinatus, Najas minor ssp.intermedia, N. minor ssp.armata, N. minor ssp. marina, Ceratophyllum submersum, C. demersum, Polygonum amphibium etc. are taxa that are more common and have formed associations and groupings in larger areas.
  7. Nymphetum albae, Nelimbio caspici-Nymphetum albae, Trapetum hyrcanae, Butometum umbellati, Spargenieto-Menyantetum trifoliataea are among the units that are exposed to extreme anthropogenic effects, narrow their areal, are under threat and need to be protected.
  8. 92% of the plants distributed in the water-swamp ecosystem have herbaceous stems, and a few (8%) have woody stems. 63% of herbaceous stem plants are perennial, 29.1% are annuals. 12 (2.4%) trees and 27 (5.4%) shrub and semi-shrub stem plants were found that adapt to water-swamp ecosystems.
  9. Cryptophytes represented 43.6% of the water-swamp flora, therophytes 27.7%, hemicryptophytes 20.1%, phanerophytes 8.0%, and camefirs 0.6%.
  10. When we evaluate according to habitat diversity, 312 around streams, streams and water channels; It has been determined that there are 160 taxa in the marsh environment, 127 taxa in still slow flowing water and cute watery lakes, and 114 taxa from habitats such as salty lakes and sea coasts.
  11. It has been determined that there are a total of 68 taxa in the water-swamp ecosystems of Azerbaijan, which fall into the danger categories, and these constitute 13.5% of the plants belonging to the total water-swamp flora. The majority of these plants were in the categories VU(25 taxa, 13.5%), Lr(cd), Lr(lc) (2.2% each with 11 taxa) and Lr(nt) (2.0% with 10 taxa), EN and 5 taxa (1.0%) were determined for each of the DD categories.




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